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The Federalist Papers

Alexander Hamilton, John Jay,
and James Madison

It was not a certain thing that the Constitution devised by the 56 men of the convention would be accepted. There were many who raised arguments against the new Constitution. To counter this, Hamilton, Madison and Jay wrote The Federalist Papers and had them published in New York. From there they went out to all the colonies. They explain not only how the new government would work, but why it was necessary and how the men who wrote it arrived at the form they did. They are an important part of our history which is sadly neglected today.

The Importance of the Union (1-14)

Federalist No. 1
General Introduction - Hamilton

Federalist No. 2
Concerning Dangers from Foreign Force and Influence - Jay

Federalist No. 3
Concerning Dangers From Foreign Force and Influence (con't) - Jay

Federalist No. 4
Concerning Dangers From Foreign Force and Influence (con't) - Jay

Federalist No. 5
Concerning Dangers From Foreign Force and Influence (con't) - Jay

Federalist No. 6
Concerning Dangers from Dissensions Between the States - Hamilton

Federalist No. 7
Concerning Dangers from Dissensions Between the States (con't) - Hamilton

Federalist No. 8
The Consequences of Hostilities Between the States - Hamilton

Federalist No. 9
The Union as a Safeguard Against Domestic Faction and Insurrection - Hamilton

Federalist No. 10
The Union as a Safeguard Against Domestic Faction and Insurrection (con't) - Madison

Federalist No. 11
The Utility of the Union in Respect to Commercial Relations and a Navy - Hamilton

Federalist No. 12
The Utility of the Union In Respect to Revenue - Hamilton

Federalist No. 13
Advantage of the Union in Respect to Economy in Government - Hamilton

Federalist No. 14
Objections to the Proposed Constitution From Extent of Territory Answered - Madison

Defects of the Articles of Confederation (15-22)

Federalist No. 15

The Insufficiency of the Present Confederation to Preserve the Union - Hamilton

Federalist No. 16
The Insufficiency of the Present Confederation to Preserve the Union (con't) - Hamilton

Federalist No. 17
The Insufficiency of the Present Confederation to Preserve the Union (con't) - Hamilton

Federalist No. 18
The Insufficiency of the Present Confederation to Preserve the Union (con't)
Hamilton / Madison

Federalist No. 19
The Insufficiency of the Present Confederation to Preserve the Union (con't)
Hamilton / Madison

Federalist No. 20
The Insufficiency of the Present Confederation to Preserve the Union (con't)
Hamilton / Madison

Federalist No. 21
Other Defects of the Present Confederation - Hamilton

Federalist No. 22
Other Defects of the Present Confederation (con't) - Hamilton

Arguments for the type of Government contained in the Constitution (23-36)

Federalist No. 23
The Necessity of a Government as Energetic as the One Proposed to the
Preservation of the Union - Hamilton


Federalist No. 24
The Powers Necessary to the Common Defense Further Considered - Hamilton

Federalist No. 25
The Powers Necessary to the Common Defense Further Considered (con't) - Hamilton

Federalist No. 26
The Idea of Restraining the Legislative Authority in Regard to the
Common Defense Considered - Hamilton


Federalist No. 27
The Idea of Restraining the Legislative Authority in Regard to the
Common Defense Considered (con't) - Hamilton


Federalist No. 28
The Idea of Restraining the Legislative Authority in Regard to the
Common Defense Considered (con't) - Hamilton


Federalist No. 29
Concerning the Militia - Hamilton

Federalist No. 30
Concerning the General Power of Taxation - Hamilton

Federalist No. 31
Concerning the General Power of Taxation (con't) - Hamilton

Federalist No. 32

Concerning the General Power of Taxation (con't) - Hamilton

Federalist No. 33

Concerning the General Power of Taxation (con't) - Hamilton

Federalist No. 34
Concerning the General Power of Taxation (con't) - Hamilton

Federalist No. 35

Concerning the General Power of Taxation (con't) - Hamilton

Federalist No. 36
Concerning the General Power of Taxation (con't) - Hamilton

The Republican form of Government (37-51)

Federalist No. 37
Concerning the Difficulties of the Convention in Devising a
Proper Form of Government - Madison


Federalist No. 38
The Same Subject Continued, and the Incoherence of the
Objections to the New Plan Exposed
- Madison


Federalist No. 39
The Conformity of the Plan to Republican Principles - Madison

Federalist No. 40
The Powers of the Convention to Form a Mixed Government
Examined and Sustained - Madison


Federalist No. 41
General View of the Powers Conferred by The Constitution - Madison

Federalist No. 42
The Powers Conferred by the Constitution Further Considered - Madison

Federalist No. 43
The Powers Conferred by the Constitution Further Considered (con't) - Madison

Federalist No. 44
Restrictions on the Authority of the Several States - Madison

Federalist No. 45
The Alleged Danger From the Powers of the Union to the
State Governments Considered

- Madison

Federalist No. 46
The Influence of the State and Federal Governments Compared - Madison

Federalist No. 47
The Particular Structure of the New Government and the Distribution
of Power Among Its Different Parts - Madison


Federalist No. 48
These Departments Should Not Be So Far Separated as to
Have No Constitutional Control Over Each Other - Madison


Federalist No. 49
Method of Guarding Against the Encroachments of Any One Department of Government by Appealing to the People Through a Convention - Hamilton / Madison

Federalist No. 50
Periodical Appeals to the People Considered - Hamilton / Madison

Federalist No. 51
The Structure of the Government Must Furnish the Proper Checks and Balances Between the Different Departments - Hamilton / Madison

The Legislative Branch (52-66)

Federalist No. 52
The House of Representatives - Hamilton / Madison

Federalist No. 53
The House of Representatives (con't) - Hamilton / Madison

Federalist No. 54
The Apportionment of Members Among the States - Hamilton / Madison

Federalist No. 55
The Total Number of the House of Representatives - Hamilton / Madison

Federalist No. 56
The Total Number of the House of Representatives (con't) - Hamilton / Madison

Federalist No. 57
The Alleged Tendency of the New Plan to Elevate the Few at the Expense of the Many Considered in Connection with Representation - Hamilton / Madison

Federalist No. 58
Objection That The Number of Members Will Not Be Augmented as the
Progress of Population Demands Considered - Madison


Federalist No. 59
Concerning the Power of Congress to Regulate the Election of Members - Hamilton

Federalist No. 60
Concerning the Power of Congress to Regulate the Election of Members (con't) - Hamilton

Federalist No. 61

Concerning the Power of Congress to Regulate the Election of Members (con't) - Hamilton

Federalist No. 62
The Senate - Hamilton / Madison

Federalist No. 63
The Senate (con't) - Hamilton / Madison

Federalist No. 64
The Powers of the Senate - Jay

Federalist No. 65
The Powers of the Senate (con't) - Hamilton

Federalist No. 66
Objections to the Power of the Senate To Set as a Court for
Impeachments Further Considered - Hamilton

The Executive Branch (67-77)

Federalist No. 67
The Executive Department - Hamilton

Federalist No. 68
The Mode of Electing the President - Hamilton

Federalist No. 69
The Real Character of the Executive - Hamilton

Federalist No. 70
The Executive Department Further Considered - Hamilton

Federalist No. 71

The Duration in Office of the Executive - Hamilton

Federalist No. 72
The Same Subject Continued, and Re-Eligibility of the Executive Considered - Hamilton

Federalist No. 73
The Provision For The Support of the Executive, and the Veto Power - Hamilton

Federalist No. 74
The Command of the Military and Naval Forces, and the
Pardoning Power of the Executive
- Hamilton

Federalist No. 75
The Treaty-Making Power of the Executive - Hamilton

Federalist No. 76
The Appointing Power of the Executive - Hamilton

Federalist No. 77

The Appointing Power Continued and Other Powers
of the Executive Considered - Hamilton

The Judicial Branch (78-83)

Federalist No. 78
The Judiciary Department - Hamilton

Federalist No. 79

The Judiciary (con't) - Hamilton

Federalist No. 80
The Powers of the Judiciary - Hamilton

Federalist No. 81
The Judiciary Continued, and the Distribution of the Judicial Authority - Hamilton

Federalist No. 82
The Judiciary Continued - Hamilton

Federalist No. 83

The Judiciary Continued in Relation to Trial by Jury - Hamilton

Conclusions and Miscellaneous Ideas

Federalist No. 84
Certain General and Miscellaneous Objections to the Constitution
Considered and Answered - Hamilton


Federalist No. 85
Concluding Remarks - Hamilton


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